All of these maneuvers are basic and have to be completely memorized. The left column shows events to wait for. The next column over shows the indicated action to perform when that event occurs, and the right column shows consequences to expect as a result. Actions marked by an asterisk are redundant: they should already have been completed in a previous step.

⚠ The information on this Web site is intended as a study guide, and clearly not as a substitute for official sources.

Flow Check

Pre-maneuver Check

Perform before each instance of a maneuver.


Recover from slow flight, stall, or aborted landing (“go-around”).

  • Mixture: rich*
  • Throttle: full
  • Carb: cold
  • Flaps: 20°
Pitch (forward, probably) so as to maintain a positive rate of climb
Airspeed VX (60 kts)
  • Flaps: 10°
Pitch so as to maintain a positive rate of climb
Clear of obstacles
  • Flaps: 0°
Pitch for VY attitude
Airspeed VY (73 kts)
Climb to specified altitude Cruise checklist

Slow Flight

Used to gain proficiency in handling the aircraft near stalling speed.

  • Carb heat: on
  • Mixture: full rich *
  • Throttle: 1500 r/m
Anticipate pitch-down, maintain altitude
Airspeed ≤ 110 kts
  • Flaps: 10°
Anticipate pitch-up, maintain altitude
Airspeed in flap operating range (white arc)
  • Flaps: 20°, 30°, 40°
Anticipate pitch-up, maintain altitude
Stall warning horn
  • Power: add to maintain airspeed
Maintain altitude

Power-off Stall

Simulates a stall on landing and the required recovery.

As Slow Flight but after flaps 40° do not wait for stall warning horn, and get hand on throttle immediately in preparation
Airspeed at approach speed (65 kts)
  • Throttle: idle
  • Carb: hot*
  • Maintain altitude, which will eventually require maximum back yoke;
  • Do not apply ailerons: they are ineffective before the stall and dangerous during stall recovery;
  • Keep pressure on both rudders and apply as necessary to maintain heading.
Full stall Recovery procedure

Power-on Stall

Simulates a stall on take-off and the required recovery.

  • Throttle: 1500 r/m
  • Carb: hot
Hand on throttle immediately in preparation. Simulating take-off, so no flaps on this one!
Airspeed: VR (55 kts) Get into ‘take-off configuration’ and simultaneously induce the stall:
  • Throttle: full
  • Carb: cold
  • Pitch: up, brisk and steep
Anticipate lots of right rudder to maintain heading, using the side windows and peripheral vision.
Full stall Recovery procedure

Steep Bank Turn

Proficiency in compensating for reduced lift and flying with increased load factor.

Add power for, but do not exceed, VA (97 kts at maximum gross weight)
About 5 kts below VA (> 70 kts)
  • Bank: Gradual but assertive, to but not exceeding 45°
At around 30° of bank vertical airspeed would definitely become negative, so anticipate and pitch up to compensate. Maintain altitude and constant bank angle.
Visual reference point within 22 1/2 lateral
  • Bank: Gentle but assertive, roll out to level
Under around 30° of bank vertical airpseed would definitely become positive, so anticipate and pitch down to compensate. Maintain altitude, and roll out at initial heading.

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